Protected Activities: Knowing Your Rights and Prohibited Retaliatory Actions

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Protected Activities: Knowing Your Rights and Prohibited Retaliatory Actions

Protected Activities: Knowing Your Rights and Prohibited Retaliatory Actions


Employees have the right to engage in certain activities without fear of retaliation from their employers. These protected activities are safeguarded by federal and state employment laws and play a crucial role in maintaining a fair and inclusive work environment. This article aims to educate employees about their rights regarding protected activities and shed light on prohibited retaliatory actions that employers must avoid.

Understanding Protected Activities
Protected activities refer to actions that employees can engage in without facing retaliation from their employers. These activities are safeguarded by various employment laws, including:

a) Reporting Discrimination: Employees have the right to report incidents of discrimination or harassment based on protected characteristics, such as race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or genetic information.

b) Filing Complaints: Employees are protected when filing complaints or grievances regarding workplace misconduct, including discrimination, harassment, safety violations, wage and hour violations, or any other unlawful practices.

c) Participating in Investigations: Employees have the right to participate in internal or external investigations related to workplace misconduct, such as cooperating with an employer’s investigation or providing information to government agencies.

d) Requesting Accommodations: Employees with disabilities have the right to request reasonable accommodations to perform their job duties effectively. Employers must engage in an interactive process and provide accommodations unless it would cause undue hardship.

e) Exercising Legal Rights: Employees have the right to exercise their legal rights, such as taking leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), serving on jury duty, or participating in military service.

Prohibited Retaliatory Actions
Employers are prohibited from taking adverse actions against employees who engage in protected activities. Retaliatory actions may include:

a) Wrongful Termination: Employers cannot fire employees in retaliation for engaging in protected activities. Terminating an employee solely because they engaged in protected activities is a violation of the law.

b) Demotion or Adverse Employment Actions: Employers cannot demote an employee, reduce their pay, change their job responsibilities, deny promotions, or take other adverse employment actions in response to their engagement in protected activities.

c) Harassment or Hostile Work Environment: Retaliation can manifest as harassment or the creation of a hostile work environment, including actions intended to intimidate, belittle, or undermine the employee.

d) Negative Performance Evaluations: Employers cannot provide unjustified negative performance evaluations or unfairly criticize an employee’s work as a form of retaliation.

e) Adverse Schedule Changes: Retaliatory employers may change an employee’s work schedule, assign undesirable shifts, or impose other unfavorable changes to make the work environment uncomfortable or inconvenient.

Employer Obligations and Legal Protections
Employers have an obligation to respect their employees’ rights to engage in protected activities. Key legal protections and obligations include:

a) Non-Retaliation Policy: Employers should establish clear policies that explicitly prohibit retaliation and communicate them to all employees. These policies should include reporting mechanisms and outline the consequences for engaging in retaliatory actions.

b) Training and Education: Employers should provide regular training to employees, supervisors, and managers about employee rights, protected activities, and the importance of a retaliation-free workplace.

c) Investigating Complaints: Employers must promptly and impartially investigate complaints of retaliation. This includes conducting interviews, reviewing evidence, and taking appropriate remedial actions if retaliation is substantiated.

d) Legal Consequences: Employers who engage in retaliatory actions can face legal consequences, including monetary damages, injunctive relief, attorney’s fees, and potential reputational damage.

Asserting Your Rights and Seeking Legal Counsel
If you believe you have faced retaliation for engaging in protected activities, it is important to assert your rights and seek legal counsel. Steps to consider include:

a) Documenting Incidents: Keep a detailed record of incidents related to the protected activity, including dates, times, locations, individuals involved, and any evidence that supports your claim.

b) Reporting Retaliation: Report instances of retaliation to the appropriate channels within your organization, such as human resources, supervisors, or designated complaint mechanisms.

c) Consultation with an Employment Law Attorney: Seek guidance from an experienced employment law attorney who specializes in retaliation cases. An attorney can assess the strength of your claim, help you navigate the legal process, and advocate for your rights.

d) Filing a Complaint: If internal remedies fail, you may file a complaint with the relevant government agency, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which investigates retaliation claims.

e) Legal Remedies: Depending on the circumstances, you may be entitled to remedies such as reinstatement, back pay, front pay, compensatory and punitive damages, and attorney’s fees.


Employees have the right to engage in protected activities without fear of retaliation from their employers. By understanding their rights and the prohibited retaliatory actions, employees can play an active role in creating a fair and inclusive work environment. Employers must respect and uphold these rights, establish non-retaliation policies, and address complaints of retaliation promptly and impartially. If you believe you have faced retaliation, consult with an employment law attorney who can assess your situation, guide you through the legal process, and advocate for your rights. Together, we can work towards fostering workplaces that promote respect, equality, and employee empowerment.

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